Survival and Emergency Preparedness

montalk.net » 21 March 19

History has shown that nothing lasts forever. Calm periods have always without exception been interrupted by natural upheavals and man-made disruptions that turn things upside down. Our medical, police, food, fuel, and utility services can only handle things as they are during normal times. When stretched by circumstances, they fall short.

Therefore, we must prep. We can’t help others from a position of weakness, so we must be strong and well-equipped. Prepping reduces suffering and prolongs our ability to do good in this world.

Preparedness spans the scale from quick and easy to hardcore and all-consuming. You take a gamble in what level to go with. Too little and you might painfully regret it one day. Too much and you will have spent time, money, and sacrificed spiritual harmony out of proportion to the risk.

It all starts with the basics, with “something is better than nothing.” The bare minimum is preparing for one week without access to power, heating, internet, cell service, grocery stores, water supply, gasoline, medical, fire, or police service.

One month covers most natural disasters like tornadoes, hurricanes, winter storms, earthquakes, and wildfires. One year would take some serious investment but is the minimum needed to survive a nuclear EMP or cyber attack that take down the electric grid. One decade would require a luxe bunker or well-defended homestead with the ability to grow food in great quantity and defend it; that is the only sure option for true long term grid-down preparedness.

The sweet spot to start with is around 3 months, but more is better if you have the money and space. Stock up most on what you use the most. Food, cash, and water are the most important. Besides those, it all depends on the dangers unique to your region, so plan accordingly. Ideally, prepare to your maximum ability with the worst case realistic scenario in mind. Realistic means possible and even likely in your lifetime.

The simplest and cheapest anyone can do for common short term disruptions (wildfire, hurricane, storms, power outage):

  • several cases of bottled water, up to 1 gallon per day per person
  • canned and ready-to-eat foods with decent shelf life
  • cash in small bills ($5) enough for food, gas, and motel covering 2-3 days of travel (more is better)
  • papers, valuables, and road atlas gathered and ready
  • extra toiletries and hygiene supplies, meds, and everyday household items
  • N95 or better dust mask and eye protection
  • USB solar panel optional way to charge battery pack, phone, headlamp, or radio

That’s good for up to a week and light enough to quickly load into your vehicle if necessary. For longer situations (weeks to months) these and more would be necessary, not only in terms of supplies but also skill and fitness.

Drawn-out economic collapse with shortages and rolling grid blackouts is the most immediate and likely issue we’ll all be facing, so prep accordingly. It’s always prudent to have a good bit of cash on hand. Panic can lead to bank runs. Natural disasters, malfunctions, or cyber attacks can disrupt internet/power and shut down ATMs, payment terminals, and online banking. Economic crises can collapse banks, freeze/confiscate deposits.

Now, regarding supplies, basic needs in order of urgency: water, food, medical, shelter, energy/lighting, defense, and tools. Some suggestions with links to Amazon:

Water

Portable water filter like the Sawyer Squeeze Water Filtration System, cases of bottled water in clear containers, water purification tablets, collapsible water bags, 100 gallon water bag for bathtub.

If there is only one item to get, it is a high quality portable water filter (followed by a respirator mask, see below). Serious water storage, if one has the space, would involve 55 gallon drums or IBC totes. But while stored water gets you through the initial phase, you simply can’t store or carry enough water to last you longer than that.

Therefore, a water filter is essential regardless. I cannot stress this enough because water is the first and most essential thing to go after any disaster, and portable filters are so compact yet good for hundreds to thousands of gallons. That Sawyer water filter uses new technology that makes it 5x more affordable than previous filters, and you can even let gravity do the work by using two collapsible water bags (top for dirty water, bottom for clean) with an adapter. To collect rain water, you can use an angled tarp suspended by paracord to channel water into a large container, or get a rain barrel connected to a gutter spout.

Well water is another valuable option. If you own property, install a hand or solar powered well pump.

Food

Government studies predict that after societal collapse, up to 90% of the population will die of violence and starvation in the first year. Calories are crucial. Considering what people spend on insurance, it would be foolish to not have emergency food stored.

Foods vary in shelf life and can be classified into short, medium, and long shelf life. Diversify by having a mix of all three.

Short-life (1-2 years):

  • energy bars
  • cookies, candy
  • dried fruits, nuts
  • cereal, crackers
  • peanut butter
  • powdered milk
  • apple sauce
  • fruit cups
  • pouched meats
  • flour, cake, pancake mixes
  • olive, sunflower, safflower oil

Medium-life (5 years):

  • canned foods (meats, vegetables, beans, soups, stews, chili)
  • jarred pasta sauces
  • boxed pasta
  • jam/jelly
  • oatmeal
  • instant potatoes
  • instant rice
  • powdered eggs
  • protein powder
  • home-canned or dehydrated foods
  • coconut oil, ghee, canned butter
  • military MREs
  • survival energy bars

Long term (10-30 years):

  • white rice, pasta, dry beans heat-sealed in mylar bags with oxygen absorbers
  • freeze dried foods in special pouches or cans

Shelf life depends on temperature. Above ratings assume 68F. At 78F expect half that. Fridge or freezer keeps them indefinitely.

White rice is the cheapest bulk calorie source. Stock up on as much as you can. Grab 10lb, 20lb, 40lb bags at the grocery store and seal them in 1-gallon or 5-gallon mylar bags with oxygen absorbers. You don’t need to vacuum seal, just squeeze most of the air out, drop in an oxygen absorber, and use a hair flat iron at the hottest setting to seal it. Mylar bags and oxygen absorbers are necessary or white rice will go rancid within 3 years. You can fit 20lbs of rice into four 1-gallon bags. Asian grocery stores may sell large bags of rice cheaper than regular stores. Avoid brown rice and whole grain pasta; the oils make it go rancid sooner. Optionally, after sealing in mylar, store rice in freezer for 24 hours to kill any weevil eggs, let return to room temperature until dry, then store away. Oxygen absorbers will normally prevent eggs from hatching so freezing isn’t totally necessary but it doesn’t hurt.

Rolled oats are another bulk staple food to seal in mylar bags with oxygen absorbers. They can be eaten without cooking, as they are pre-cooked and dried before being sold. Pasta, pasta sauce, and peanut butter are the next cheapest prepper foods. Pasta stores well, is easy to cook, and the sauce is a concentrated fruit/vegetable source. Noodles can be soaked in room temperature water before cooking to save on fuel. Dry beans are another prepper staple but require soaking and energy-intensive cooking before eating, though split peas are the easiest to cook. Put these into mylar bags with oxygen absorbers if you want them to last 10+ years.

Peanut butter from bulk discount outlet stores is one of the most affordable short-to-medium shelf-life sources of calories, fat, and protein. Not the healthiest form of fat, and shelf life only 2-3 years max, but for those on a budget prepping for emergencies coming within the next year or two, it will keep you alive and has more to offer nutritionally than just rice. You can also be in keto and survive on peanut butter and canned tuna in oil for a while. Vitamin C powder and multivitamins are necessary on a diet like this. Keep the vitamins in the freezer to prolong their life.

Mountain House freeze dried meal pouches or cans are ideal for long term food storage. The most costly option, but best in terms of shelf life (up to 30 years), weight, and taste. Compared to throwing out canned foods every few years that you didn’t manage to rotate through, it may save money in the long term. In terms of preparedness, it’s a better investment than gold and silver.

Alternatively or additionally, buy cases of canned dry foods from the Mormons. The most cost-effective long-term freeze-dried option. Mormons are required by their religion to be preppers, so they offer good prices on these. A commercial version of similar selections of freeze dried foods is Nutristore. You can freeze dry food yourself but machines cost thousands and it only really makes sense if you have have access to cheap fresh food in bulk, like if you run a farm, large garden, or are part of a food co-op.

Bulk protein: cheapest/easiest is 5lb containers of whey protein. 3-5 year shelf life unless you mylar bag it with oxygen absorbers, so rotate through it as needed. Without enough protein your strength, immune system, and emotional well-being take a hit. Freeze-dried #10 cans of chicken and beef are also invaluable. Powdered eggs likewise. Otherwise: canned meats like chicken, tuna, salmon, and sardines, or peanut butter. If you have the time and equipment, pressure can your own ground beef.

Military meal packs (MREs) are fine but only have a 2-3 year shelf life and are not always sold fresh. They’re more of a novel convenience. On the plus side they don’t require cooking.

Survival-oriented energy bars like Millennium Bars are great to stash away and keep in your car. They are vacuum packed, calorie-dense, affordable, contain vitamins, and have a long shelf-life. Each bar is 400 calories. Regular energy/protein/granola bars only have a 6-12 month shelf life at room temperature but taste better and are perfect for short power outages and eating while running/hiking/hiding.

Fats are really important. Fat deficiency leads to autoimmune and nervous system disorders. Freeze dried and dry canned goods tend to lack fat. But storing fats and oils is challenging due to spoilage, which is accelerated by light, heat, and oxygen. Unopened olive oil lasts 2-3 years at room temperature, maybe 5-10 years refrigerated. Coconut oil is good for 5-10 years and has antiviral properties, but lacks certain important fatty acids (linoleic and oleic). Grass-fed beef tallow or ghee lasts years. Canned butter lasts up to 10 years in a cool place (like a root cellar) or 5 years at room temperature.

For cooking, most convenient for short term use: Esbit folding stove and fuel or Coleman propane stove. To use wood as fuel, which is great for long term or if you’re on foot, a biofuel stove works but takes longer to light and smoke disallows indoor use.

For month+ emergency preparations, I generally recommend an alcohol stove and quart-sized canisters of denatured alcohol (found in the paint thinner section of hardware stores, and is also known as marine stove fuel) because you can stockpile gallons of fuel for months of smoke-free cooking; an ounce of alcohol boils 2 cups of water. The alcohol stove is an easy and cost-effective setup for home or in between travel-by-car.

Gardening, aquaponics, and homesteading offer a renewable food supply but take quite a bit of land, time, money, effort, and skills to get right. Disease, predators, or unfavorable weather can wipe out a harvest in short time. Preserving harvested food is another challenge (canning and freeze-drying). Security complicates things too, especially during the most dangerous phase of a grid-down situation when it’s wiser to stay inside. That’s why stored food and water are necessary regardless.

Medical and Sanitation

Extra prescription items stored in a cool place, toiletries and personal hygiene essentials, and First Aid kit ( M2 Basics, Comprehensive Kit, or similar).

Or make your own kit: anti-bacterial ointment (most important), anti-fungal ointment, cortisone cream, anti-diarrheal, laxative, SAM splints for sprains and breaks, assorted band-aids, buffered aspirin, vaseline, rubbing alcohol, iodine liquid, medical tape, gauze rolls, elastic bandage wrap, wound dressing pads, butterfly sutures, superglue for cuts, burn gel or burn pad, moleskin for blisters, bandage scissors, tweezers, latex-free gloves, plastic syringe for wound washing, Bic lighter, sturdy drinking straws, Gold Bond medicated powder, scissors, digital thermometer. Additional anti-microbials: oregano oil and colloidal silver.

For dealing with deep gashes, stabbing wounds, or gunshot wounds, you would need a trauma kit. SOFTT Wide tourniquet, OLAES compression bandage, trauma scissors, nasophyringial airways, chest decompression needle, HALO chest seals. Some of these require medical training to use and are mostly meant to stabilize someone long enough to get to a hospital. Without a hospital, these will prolong life but not guarantee survival.

First aid and trauma kits cover two extremes. One is for minor issues, the other for catastrophic issues. If you want to be properly prepared, you’d also need to cover the realm between these two extremes, the realm of general medicine that’s familiar to doctors and nurses but not so much those outside the medical field. They understand the necessity and use of prescription-strength painkillers, antibiotics, IV fluids, and other specialized drugs and equipment.

To get a basic grounding on that, including a list of what drugs to get (which can be bought online without a prescription if you look around), please read two books: 1) The Prepper’s Medical Handbook and 2) The Survival Medicine Handbook (ideally the color upgrade). These give a more realistic picture of what’s required for general coverage than simple First Aid.

For hygiene and sanitation, stock up on soap, dish soap, detergent, toilet paper and paper towels, feminine products, moist towelettes, rubbing alcohol, and look into camping toilets or at least 5 gallon paint buckets with lids. A good shovel will allow you to dig an outdoor latrine if necessary.

Energy / Lighting

Storms can knock out power for 2-3 days. Severe storms, 1-2 weeks especially in rural areas. Major hurricanes and tornadoes with widespread devastation, 1-3 months. Nation-wide EMP strike, power and all other services will be gone for the rest of your life.

The problem now is that due to the pandemic, supply chain shortages of transformers, breakers, and cables are hitting power companies hard. They can’t fix things as quickly as before, if at all. Other threats include cyber attack, EMP strike, oil crisis, hyperinflation, credit crunch, or war with China that blocks shipping lanes from Asia. The future of centralized electric power is on thin ice. Brown-outs, black outs, and rolling black-outs will be more common.

For emergencies up to a week long, simplest is a USB portable battery bank. The battery bank is charged via USB (hence solar panel, 12V car charger, computer, or home wall adapter) and can then power small devices. Recharge phones, tablets, radios, headlamps, batteries, etc. anything that can be charged via USB. The higher the capacity, the better.

There are also much heavier duty portable battery banks like this portable power station, or one with a 100W solar panel. These are amazing for running small AC powered devices like laptops, radios, lamps, etc. as well as USB.

USB battery banks or devices can be charged by solar power. The performance of solar USB chargers may be disappointing, however, if you trust the advertised power rating (in watts) of the panel. Manufacturers test them at the most intense direct sunlight, if not lying outright. So the rule of thumb is to go overkill with the advertised watts. An iPad charges at 5V 2A which is 10 watts, but a solar panel rated at 10 watts will not be enough; 30-50 watts is more in line with what people imagine solar power should be for that application.

In terms of solar technology, there are different kinds of panels:

  • Polycrystaline: Old tech, heavy, inefficient, but cheap. Terrible in cloudy conditions, needs direct full sunlight. Appearance: large flakes of varying shades of blue amid a grid of thin parallel lines. Sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency: 15%. Best for rooftop solar power on a budget.
  • Monocrystaline: Similar to polycrystaline but efficiency is better at 20%. Still needs direct sunlight to function, and therefore not good for cloudy days. Appearance: uniformly dark blue-brown color, horizontal lines, in squares with rounded corners. What you’ll find in most consumer portable solar chargers.
  • Amorphous/thin-film: Best option but most expensive and larger surface area. Lightweight, very thin and flexible, and absorbs more of the light spectrum for more power including cloudy conditions and partial shade. What the military uses. The best thin-film manufacturer is PowerFilm. Appearance: grid of small u-shaped dark rectangles.

Your best choice is a monocrystaline or amorphous/thin-film panel at 2×-3x the watts you think you need. Make sure to get something durable and reliable, as the cheaper ones tend to stop working after a couple months. To charge USB devices, on a budget look into portable mono panels like the Topsolar 60w. Otherwise, PowerFilm 30 Watt plus an Anker 12V-to-USB charger. That one can charge car batteries too, albeit slowly.

12V solar panels + 12V batteries let you run USB chargers that normally plug into car cigarette lighter outlets. Other devices that run on 12V DC can be connected to the batteries via the right cable: AC inverter, light, fan (via this cable), battery charger, air compressor, mini fridge.

For lighting, headlamps keep your hands free and are superior to flashlights. Premium LED headlamp with 18650 batteries. And/or low cost LED headlamp and packs of alkaline or lithium AA/AAA batteries (lithium batteries don’t leak and keep longer in storage). If things get really bad (nationwide electric grid collapse) you must minimize the use of light. Use the red light or tape a red filter over the light, keep it on the dimmest mode, and use it as little as you can to avoid being spotted.

Whole-house solar panel systems, batteries and charge controllers are quite an investment and require professional consultation and installation. Generators that runs on gasoline, diesel, or propane are good for short term high power applications like running kitchen appliances or whole homes for a short while. But they are noisy, emit exhaust, and run out of fuel within days or weeks. Stored gasoline must have stabilizers added to last longer than six months (or a little longer if premium gasoline, which has lower water-absorbing ethanol in it). Diesel lasts longer and can be stored in 55 gallon drums. Propane fed from the gas line infrastructure will lose its pressure when the remote pump fails in a power outage, so must instead be stored in a large propane tank on site.

For your vehicle, pick up some STA-BIL fuel stabilizer and a solar battery maintainer (in some cars you may need to run the solar wiring straight to the battery instead of using the cigarette lighter). This will allow your vehicle to sit for up to 2 years and still start up and go. Just keep the tires inflated.

Other

Besides a water filter, a respirator is the next most important hardware item. Unlike a simple N95 mask, these are silicone and make a complete seal around mouth and nose. There are many situations when you would need one: smoke from wildfire and structure fires, chemical spills, mold after a flood, volcanic eruptions, viral and bacterial outbreaks, nuclear fallout, chemical and biological weapons, tear gas, dust storms, and rotting bodies/garbage.

3M Respirator mask with 6001 Filter for smoke, dust, biological and chemical fumes or the 7093 Filter for smoke, dust, and biological particles (easier to breathe through, but doesn’t protect against chemicals or vapors).

For more protection, especially against viruses and bacteria, you must also wear safety goggles or swim goggles that form a seal. Or a full face mask, whether a 3M full mask or a military surplus gas mask that takes 40mm threaded filters, like the Scott M95 or similar.

Fire. Stick to Bic Lighters and ferro rods. Lighters should be your primary method because they are far easier to use, light more reliably, and make good barter items. Keep away from moisture or the flints will disintegrate over time. Ferro rods make good backups, but you can’t easily light a candle with a ferro rod. Make sure to have a fire extinguisher too.

Spare eyeglasses. You can order them cheap at online sites like Zenni Optical. Pick up a few to stash around, in your vehicle, cache, or bugout bag. Needless to say without vision you can’t hunt, navigate, or identify danger.

Nuclear Radiation Detector In case of nuclear power plant meltdown, dirty bomb attack, or nuclear war. You’ll want to know how bad (and where) the radiation is. Pair it with the Nuclear War Survival Skills book and some potassium iodide tablets.

Swiss Army Knife or Leatherman Multi-Tool. Convenient to always have with you.

Fixed blade knife. Morakniv makes great knives (budget, better, best) for prying, shaving, splitting wood, and defense. Strictly for defense, especially concealed, the small or large Ka-Bar TDI are better. And for a truly indestructible (and long) field knife, Glock makes one.

750 Paracord. Unlimited uses, including emergency escape from windows if you know what you’re doing.

Binoculars, specifically the Steiner 8×30 which are the best all-around in weight, durability, clarity, and speed of use.

Pocket chain saw or folding saw. To remove downed branches, cut logs for fires. If you’re going to be chainsawing quite often, an electric chainsaw and solar power system is a good option.

Mechanix gloves. Safety from cuts and scrapes, and good for tactical use too.

Lock pick set, fence wire cutters, and pry bar. For getting into / out / through things. Picking locks isn’t as easy as in the movies, but you’ll get further with a quality set.

Multi-Function Watch: Specifically the G-Shock Rangeman as it has compass, thermometer, sunrise & sunset times, barometer to detect bad weather, altimeter which can help with land navigation, and is solar powered and automatically syncs its time to the atomic clock broadcast stations. Otherwise the simpler GD-350 (has vibration alarm) or basic DW-5600.

Repair gear: duct tape, super glue gel, hot glue sticks, epoxy putty, JB weld, plastic tarps or contractor trash bags, hand sewing needles and bonded nylon thread, sewing awl, zip ties small and large, ranger bands (bicycle inner tubes cut to rubber band size), tire repair kit, solder and electrical tape and hookup wire, hammer and nails (highly valuable) long enough to board up a window.

Common sense items like clothing, backpacks, sunglasses, hats, socks, shoes etc.

Shelter / Hiking

When sheltering indoors, extreme cold is the biggest problem. That’s when water pipes and toilets in the home can freeze and burst unless drained beforehand. A fireplace or wood-burning stove is the logical answer to staying warm. If it’s only a natural gas outage, an electric heater can be used. Kerosene heaters are dangerous indoors due to fire and carbon monoxide risk, while propane catalytic gas heaters are better but must still be used with adequate ventilation and a carbon monoxide detector.

Without any of these heating options, many people will move into public shelters as staying in a freezing home becomes unbearable. Surviving in an unheated home can be done, however, just as adventurers survive in the snowy woods or mountains for weeks if not months. You would need the same level of clothing: thermal base layer tops and bottoms, thick wool socks and camping down booties, down or fleece jackets or snow suits, hats that cover the ears, mittens, and camping hygiene like moist towelettes or isopropyl alcohol and paper products to stay clean without showers.

It’s also good to have a sleeping bag appropriate to your climate. You can use heavy blankets instead, but sleeping bags are easier to transport and use outside the home should the need arise. The most cost-effective solution is a military surplus sleeping bag, specifically an arctic bag with down filling if you’re preparing for winter. Wool or fleece liners make them even warmer, or put a lighter bag inside a heavier one. Note that the temperature ratings are somewhat of a lie and you should add 20F to get the true rating, e.g. a 0F bag is only really good down to 20F.

Another essential item is an inflatable sleeping pad, which will conserve body heat and let you sleep comfortably in more places including the floors of buildings, hard soil and gravel, and cots that lack padding. They have different R ratings (thermal insulation) which matters if you’re using them in cold environments since the ground will suck body heat away if you don’t use a pad or if you use one with a low R rating. So in colder weather you’ll need an insulated pad with an R rating above 4.

Bugging out on foot into the woods is a bit of a fantasy. You’re more likely to be sleeping in cars, buildings, or your own home than in the wilderness. Wilderness is a last resort. Preparing for on-foot or woods survival requires a different approach focusing on minimalism and lightweight. Realistically, someone bugging out into their own property will cache goods there ahead of time. Otherwise you can only take what you can carry, and that severely limits how prepared you can be. Further, cold weather and questionable availability of food, not to mention running into hostile people, further reduce chances of survival in the wild. That said, even if you don’t plan on bugging out, you may be forced to do so eventually when your food and water run out, so be prepared for that possibility.

For outdoor shelter, get a lightweight tent and use a military thermal casualty blanket for the ground sheet. Tarps alone can work as shelter but they let in bugs, animals, and wind. Bivvy bags (waterproof covers for sleeping bags) are fine for short survival situations and stealth camping but you can’t really stow your gear inside them for protection, let alone change or clean in private. A hammock beneath a tarp can work, but in cold weather hammocks require thermal under-quilts in addition to the sleeping bag so there’s no real weight or size savings compared to a tent. That’s why a tent is best overall.

Carrying all this requires a good backpack, like a hiking backpack in the 45-100 liter range. The sleeping bag will take up most of that volume. Remember to keep the total weight under 30% of your healthy bodyweight or you won’t be walking far.

Research hiking, mountaineering, bushcraft, and orienteering to get accustomed with the types of variables involved in traversing the land. If your main aim is to travel while avoiding people and ambushes, and you have the cash, then investing in a portable infrared thermal scope can be of value since in open air (i.e. not through glass) it lets you detect body heat signatures from hundreds of yards away even at night.

Communications

To only receive information via radio:

1. AM/FM Radio — Stay informed when there’s no internet or cell service. If the government drops off supplies just two blocks away, without a radio you might never know it. That happened after Hurricane Andrew and people suffered just a block or two away from pallets of food and water.

2. AM/FM/Shortwave — Listen to shortwave radio stations from 500-2000 miles away, unlike AM/FM which can only reach 50-100 miles. So a shortwave radio lets you get news from distant regions. Nowadays, most shortwave stations tend to just be music or religious in nature, but there are a few news stations too.

3. AM/FM/Shortwave with Single Sideband — Single-sideband (SSB) lets you hear individual HAM radio operators from hundreds and sometime thousands of miles away in the 20m, 40m and 80m bands. SSB drives up the price of the radio but it’s important to have if you can afford it, as HAM operators can report local conditions around the country, which you might not hear about any other way. Here’s a larger radio with shortwave and SSB. This is my recommended option.

4. Software Defined Radios — Turn your laptop or windows tablet into a shortwave radio with SSB. These are little boxes or dongles that plug in via USB. An app then lets you view the frequency spectrum and tune into any part of it (including AM, FM, walkie talkie, and other transmissions). These devices are relatively affordable but the apps are janky and less user-friendly than physical radios, and they consume greater power.

5. Scanners — Scanners scan rapidly through frequencies in a set range and lock on whenever a transmission is detected. People typically use them to listen to police, fire, and EMS activity. Scanners can also pick up 2m and 70cm HAM bands and FM radio. Note that many police stations use encrypted channels nowadays, which scanners can’t decode. Another application, for which much cheaper scanners suffice, is detecting nearby transmissions from walkie talkies, e.g. nearby enemies coordinating an ambush on you over unencrypted radios. If you didn’t have a scanner, you’d have to be tuned to the right channel to ever hear them, thus a scanner can be lifesaver in such situations.

To receive and transmit information:

1. Walkie Talkies — Simplest and easiest solution. They’re small, light, and portable. Range is several miles in open country down to half a mile if buildings or hills are in the way. These are unencrypted so anyone can potentially hear you. They transmit on the FRS (no license needed) or GMRS/MURS (license ‘needed’) frequency bands depending on the model.

2. CB radios — Also fine for local comms but meant more for home or vehicle mounting since they require larger antennas, more power, and thus heavier batteries. They’re prone to static noise from storms and solar activity. Only advantage to CB is their low cost and no need for a HAM license.

3. Handheld UHF/VHF radios — The infamous Baofeng units are low-cost HAM radios that look like walkie talkies but can send/receive on additional frequencies including the 2m and 70cm HAM bands. They can also receive FM and NOAA weather stations. These are meant for short range communication, or else for interacting with a local repeater tower that forwards your signal to another one far away but such towers can’t be relied on when the grid is down. These require a HAM license to transmit on legally, but if you stay on FRS/GMRS, and MURS frequencies and use low power no one will know or care. You have to program their frequencies on your computer using the CHIRP app so they’re not as easy to use out of the box as walkie talkies. Also, newer Baofengs have FRS/GMRS disabled to comply with FCC regulations, but that can be unlocked as shown in this video.

4. DMR Radios — Get these if you need encrypted radios for a neighborhood comms network. They can operate on regular analog channels (like the UHF/VHF radios and FRS/GMRS/MURS walkie talkies) but can also switch to digital mode for a cleaner sound at the cost of slightly reduced range. Definitely get a better antenna for these. In digital mode they’re like off-the-grid cellphones since you can dial specific radios on a network by their ID number. Just be warned that DMR radios take some effort to set up and program correctly. It’s actually illegal to use encrypted radios on HAM bands (the encryption can be turned on or off) but the option exists if you need it. Without encryption, everyone in the area can eavesdrop on your conversation. Even if encrypted, bad guys can still triangulate your location so be mindful of that.

5. HF HAM Transceivers — Unlike the UHF/VHF handheld HAM radios, these particular radios operate on the lower frequency HF band at much higher power. That means Yaesu, ICOM, and Kenwood units capable of receiving and transmitting on the 20m, 40m, and 80m (a.k.a. 75m) bands. With such a transceiver, a suitable antenna for the given frequency band, and an appropriate battery, you can communicate with (or just listen to) HAM operators hundreds if not thousands of miles away. In a post-collapse situation, this is the only viable means of long-distance communication. There’s a lot to using HAM, and you definitely need a license to transmit legally. But more importantly you need to know the verbal protocols of how to initiate, carry out, and end contact on HAM radio. These are quite regulated, hence the license requirement. Getting a license is straightforward, just that your home address goes into a public database and that paints a target on your location. In an emergency, licensing and protocols take a back seat so HF HAM transceivers are still viable for prepping regardless.

EMP strike will fry most electronics. So they must be stored inside a metal container that can shield them from electromagnetic pulses. There are dedicated EMP pouches and containers for sale. Otherwise a stock pot with solid metal lid, metal garbage can, or metal ammo can will do. Again, if the situation is very desperate with marauders on the loose, minimize any radio transmissions or they will triangulate your signal and raid you.

Navigation

It helps to know the area: where you are, where you’re going, how to get there, and where strategic points are located like bridges, stores and hospitals, back roads, supply caches, nuclear plants and other danger areas. In order of priority: map, compass, GPS.

For paper maps, start with a road atlas to keep in your vehicle, like the Rand McNally 2022 Atlas. Consider also getting a more detailed atlas just for your state, which shows topography, camping sites, and the more obscure back roads.

Next, install the free maps.me smartphone app to have a road map that displays your location. In the app, download the databases for your state and surrounding states, for offline use. Then even if internet and GPS go down, you still have a digital road map in your pocket. An old smartphone (even without a SIM card) can be repurposed for this. For compasses, if just driving or walking in the city, you only need a simple compass like the Brunton TruArc 3 to orient you when lost.

But if navigating in the wilderness, you need a topographic map and baseplate compass. Many people think a compass is just for finding north. But with a proper map and compass you can do so much more: measure distances, triangulate your position, read and plot GPS coordinates on the map, get the precise bearing between two points, design routes to your destinations, and navigate these routes by going from waypoint to waypoint by heading in a specific bearing for a specified distance.

To learn land navigation like this, first print or buy a detailed map of your area that has UTM grid lines and the proper map scale. One option is Caltopo, where you can make your own custom maps. The help docs will familiarize you with the workflow. You can blend different maps together.

Specifically, for rural areas, use one of the Topographic Maps as the base layer and blend in the Shaded Relief map. In print settings, enable UTM coordinate grids at 1km spacing so that you can plot GPS points. Set the map scale at 1:24,000 or 1:25,000 to match the scale on your compass or UTM map tool. This allows you to measure distances on the map and plot/read GPS coordinates. Then generate the PDF to download and print, or order a 12”×18” double-sided synthetic paper map (which is tear-proof and waterproof) through Caltopo for $10 with free shipping.

For urban areas, do likewise except use OpenStreetMap as the base layer and turn on the Structures option. Then all the streets and buildings will be there. At 1:24,000 or 1:25,000 scale expect the street names to be almost illegible, so you might need to go with 1:12,000 scale and 100m grid spacing, and order. While UTM slot tool aren’t made for that scale, you can visually estimate a point coordinate down to 10m precision, or simply measure with a ruler and convert.

Regarding baseplate compasses, get the Suunto MC-2 or Suunto M3 baseplate compass (the NH model if you’re north of the equator, otherwise the global model). The MC-2 has a mirror and sighting line to help you get more accurate readings of distant landmarks, which is important when triangulating your own position on a map. The M3 is less bulky and a little cheaper.

You might also come across the Cammenga 3H military lensatic compass in your browsing. It’s much more rugged, but compared to the Suunto it lacks an important declination adjustment used to compensate for the difference between true north and magnetic north. So the conversion has to be done in your head. Magnetic declination varies depending on your geographic location; find out yours. Having a compass with declination adjustment is convenient but not critical. Baseplate compasses without a declination adjustment may still have a curved declination scale, in which case you just put the needle over the part of the scale that matches your region’s declination (instead of placint it in the “shed” or “dog house”). That then orients you toward true degrees.

There are many useful videos on YouTube about land navigation topic: reading a topo map, using a baseplate or lensatic compass, finding your position, UTM grids with GPS coordinates, pace count and boxing, and more.

GPS is also handy, but in a survival situation should not be relied on as the sole means of navigation. GPS uses radio signals from satellites to calculate position. It doesn’t by itself send out signals to give away your position. GPS is convenient and precise but will be the first to fail. Dead batteries, extreme solar activity, attack on GPS satellites, or nuclear EMP (electromagnetic pulse) will make GPS useless. Then you’ll have to rely on map and compass. But while it’s still working, GPS is amazing because it shows you exactly where you are.

For standalone GPS devices with color screens that display maps, the Garmin GPSMAP 66sr is one of the best. On the more primitive side, the Foretrex 601 doesn’t store detailed maps, so those are still needed on the side, but it does record and display your GPS coordinates, records your tracks so you can re-trace them, allows you to mark locations, plan routes with waypoints, and follow those routes with distance, heading, and estimated time of arrival displayed on the screen. It runs on two AAA batteries and can be strapped to your wrist. Use Garmin Basecamp with OpenMapChest to find and add fuel, food, gun, hardware, medical, and other local points of interest to the Foretrex as waypoints.

Fitness, Knowledge, Teamwork

Gear aside, like in combat, physical fitness is of paramount importance when surviving on foot. The fitter you are, the longer and more swiftly you can move and thus evade danger. Such fitness would be centered around endurance and mobility under load, meaning resistance cardio, bodyweight exercises, and rucking moreso than aesthetic bodybuilding and heavy weight lifting. Physical fitness is also an asset toward disaster-related activities like clearing fallen trees, filling sandbags, boarding up windows, carrying food and water, and so on. Note that the greater your muscle mass, the higher your calorie and protein requirements, and the faster muscles will diminish if those requirements can’t be met.

Now, the less you can depend on the conveniences of a stable society to shelter and protect you, the more skills and knowledge you would need to remain well. So for a week long power outage where you just sit tight until services are restored, not much is required beyond some extra supplies as mentioned in the beginning of this note.

It takes more than just gear to survive on foot, make it through a drawn out economic collapse, or deal with marauders (best option there is to hide unless you have a team trained in military ambush and assault tactics). So beyond a certain point of direness, one would need a group of skilled individuals working as a team to do what one person alone cannot.

The difficulty and cost of prepping goes up exponentially with the expected length of the grid-down situation. Accept that you can’t prepare for every scenario. Draw the line where prudence becomes obsession and self-sabotage.

Defense

You can’t count on the police to protect you. Even under the best conditions, response times average 5-15 minutes. It takes determined home invaders less than a minute to break in and start doing the worst imaginable. You might try dialing 911 but the phone system could be down after an EMP or cyber-attack or natural disaster. Or the phones work, but you can’t get through because everyone else is also trying to call and the lines are clogged. Or the police may have gone home to protect their families and no one is patroling the streets. In these situations, you must have a means of defense.

The best defense is avoiding trouble in the first place. That means hiding, being inconspicuous, and avoiding danger areas. For the home, installing a security system (with battery backup) and reinforcing your doors and windows can go a long way.

Martial arts skills are helpful but only get you so far. Weapons exist to buy you time and distance and are force multipliers. They level the playing field. Without either of these, you’ll have to depend on others for your physical safety, which puts their lives at risk and renders you incapable of defending someone under your care.

Non-firearm weapons:

  • spear
  • gladius or machete
  • pepper gel or bear spray
  • large, heavy, blinding flashlight
  • baseball bat
  • rock pick hammer
  • long screwdriver
  • fire extinguisher
  • bow, crossbow, or slingbow
  • large wrench
  • metal pipe
  • padlock or big metal nut on a cord or bandana

Obviously these vary in legality, visibility, deniability, range, and lethality so the best one(s) for you depends on your unique situation.

To determine what level to prepare, think about which threats you could plausibly face. From least severe (and common) to most severe (and less probable):

  • Home invasion by a drunk or confused person.
  • Home invasion by a burglar who would rather run than fight.
  • Being confronted in the streets by a mugger or someone looking to pick a fight.
  • Getting carjacked, or being on public transportation that gets hijacked.
  • Being out in public when a lone shooter or terrorists open fire.
  • Home invasion by several armed men.
  • Gangs, paramilitary, or psychopathic marauders pillaging your neighborhood.
  • Organized military forces conquering and occupying your region.
  • Alien invasion (hey it could happen).

The first few examples can be handled with non-lethal weapons or competent martial arts. But beyond a certain point you will need a lethal weapon preferably a firearm to stand a chance. The last three examples are on the extreme end and require military style weapons, tactics, and teams to handle. There are American civilians out there doing exactly that, because they can and feel they must.

Tactical prepping and training falls into two types: fighting just by yourself (civilian personal self defense, home defense, and police style training) and what requires a competent team (military small unit tactics). The latter is incredibly effective but far more resource-intensive. Below, I will cover essentials for both. Training matters even more, but that takes books, videos, and courses to learn, so this article will only provide some general tips there.

Firearms

Firearms carry a legal risk and require safety, proficiency, and integrity to use responsibly and effectively; nevertheless they are tools that protect innocent life when law enforcement is overwhelmed during a societal breakdown situation. If you follow basic safety rules and aren’t suicidal, the risk of being killed by your own weapon is far lower than the risk of being killed by not having one. Anti-gunners use false statistics to further totalitarian agendas under the guise of safety. Don’t fall for their scare tactics.

In the hands of good people, guns use force to stop violence. There’s nothing wrong with owning a gun if you’re spiritual person. It’s all about mindset and philosophy of use. The Shaolin monks and chivalric knights were spiritual but trained for battle with deadly weapons. Having high vibes can synchronistically shield you from trouble, but your vibes may falter from time to time, or maybe you find yourself stuck in a collective checkmate situation where things get precarious for everyone. Physical defenses and preparations come into play during these times.

Here are some options:

1) Pistol in 9mm. [Concealable: Glock 42 or M&P Shield 2.0 | Budget: Canik TP9SF | Better: Sig P320 xCompact | Best: Glock 19 Gen 5 MOS or Gen 3]. Pistols a.k.a. handguns are portable, concealable, and can be kept on you at all times, within limits of the law or willing risk. Compared to rifles they are inaccurate, underpowered, and only good for short range. It also takes more training to wield a handgun proficiently. But since you’re far more likely to use a handgun than a rifle in the real world, if you can only get one firearm make it a handgun. While there may be more ergonomic pistols out there, the Glock 19 beats everything in durability and commonality of spare parts and aftermarket accessories.

2) AR15 style rifles. [Budget: Springfield M&P 15 Sport III | Better: IWI Zion 15 or FN 15 Guardian | Best: Colt CR6960, BCM RECCE-16 MCMR, or Daniel Defense DDM4 V7 SLW]. Advantages of the AR15 include precision, accuracy, range (out to 300-500 yards), ergonomics, maneuverability, modularity, and light weight (6.5 lbs) compared to other rifles. They are ideal for home defense, neighborhood defense, and war. They do everything except concealed carry. Downside is the high price ($1500-$4500) for a complete system with optics, lights, sling, magazines, and ammo. Since complete rifles carry an extra 11% federal tax, a cheaper and more available option is to buy the upper and lower half separately. The upper ships to your door, but the lower requires an FFL (usually a gun store) for delivery and background check. You can mix and match between brands: Daniel Defense or BCM complete upper (plus bolt carrier group and Mod 4B charging handle for that one) and a Palmetto State Armory or Aero Precision complete lower (with an H2 buffer upgrade). Overall, BCM offers an ideal balance of value, quality, reliability, and availability especially for the upper. As for barrel lengths, 16” is best for velocity, range, noise, and legality with only minor sacrifice of maneuverability.

3) Pistol caliber carbines. [Budget: Hi-Point 995 | Good: Ruger PC 9, Kel Tec Sub 2000 Gen 3, Extar EP9, Smith & Wesson FPC | Best: CMMG Banshee 9mm, Sig MPX]. These look like rifles but fire pistol ammunition, typically 9mm. Easier to shoot than handguns, not as loud or concussive as rifles. They are perfect for home defense and use by smaller framed people. Downside is that their effective range is under 100 yards (versus 25 yards for a handgun). The Kel Tec Sub 2000 folds in half for easy storage/concealment in a small backpack and uses Glock magazines.

These are all commonly recommended choices for their specified budget range and purpose. Ammo, upgrades, and accessories can together equal the cost of the firearm, so budget accordingly.

Weapon Lights

Get a quality weapon light to avoid misidentification at night.

For pistol, Surefire X300, Streamlight TLR-1, or Streamlight TLR-7A. There are newer possibly better lights out there, but in being newer you’ll have trouble finding holsters for that gun+light combo, that’s why I recommend these tried and true lights.

For a rifle, Surefire M340C or a comparable one from Modlite or Cloud Defensive. More affordable is the Streamlight Protac Rail Mount just don’t use the remote tape switch that comes with it due to reliability issues.

Optics

Optics are for aiming. Examples include iron sights, red dots, prism sights, scopes, and low power variable optics (LPVOs). Since hitting where you aim is the purpose of shooting, the quality of the aiming system is critical. So the optic needs to be rugged, accurate, dependable, securely fastened, and properly zeroed (internally aligned to where the bullet will impact at the intended distance). Don’t cheap out on the optic.

The best brands are Trijicon and Aimpoint. These are combat grade. Below them are Steiner and Meprolight. Below those, consumer-grade options by Primary Arms, Vortex, Sig, and Holosun. And at the bottom, the “avoid at all cost” brands like NcStar, Bushnell, Barska, Sightmark, ATN, etc. Overall, can’t go wrong with Trijicon or Aimpoint. If on a tight budget, choose Primary Arms or Holosun.

For carbines/rifles intended for home defense and house-to-house distances, get a red dot like an Aimpoint Pro, Aimpoint Micro T2, Aimpoint ACRO P2, Holosun 510c, or else a 1x prism sight like the Primary Arms SLX-1x. Red dot sights are fast and intuitive, just point and click. But the dot will look blurry if you have astigmatism and will disappear if the battery or electronics die. By contrast, a prism sight’s reticle is etched into glass, which ensures it can never disappear, and the reticle looks sharp even for those with astigmatism.

For pistols, iron sights work fine for most people. But red dots allow for greater precision. Red dots on pistols take a lot of practice to use reliably (1000+ repetitions drawing and aiming) because the viewing window is small and the dot disappears off screen if you’re not aiming straight on. But the payoff is that you become more precise and accurate with practice. Recommended pistol red dots include the Trijicon RMR Type 2 (or RMR HD) and Aimpoint ACRO P2. If running a Glock MOS model, the Holosun SCS is solar powered and mounts without need for an adapter plate or suppressor-height iron sights.

Now, when society is functioning like normal, the chances of needing to engage beyond 100 yards is close to zero. And as long as the legal system is working, it would be hard to justify taking such a long shot in court. That’s why practically speaking, a red dot or 1x prism covers nearly all defense scenarios during normal times. Seriously, it takes the least training of all optics and is the fastest up close where most violent incidences take place.

But since this is an article about prepping, we also have to account for more extreme situations that might require magnification. Without magnification, spotting someone poking out behind cover beyond 100 yards can be a challenge. You may see “something” but can’t tell what it is, which is frustrating and dangerous. That’s when you need magnification to see better.

Why would you ever need to shoot past 100 yards? You could be sniped or suppressed from a distance, be forced to hunt for food, lay down carefully aimed (due to low ammo supply) suppressive fire on the enemy while your team mates flank them, or come upon a check point in the distance manned by possible marauders. Magnification buys you distance and hence safety.

Regarding magnification levels, 2×-3x is the sweet spot between indoor and outdoor use, 4x gets you comfortably out to 400 yards for military infantry tactics and hunting applications, 6×-8x is nice but not absolutely necessary, and 10×-14x is sniper territory that requires a bipod and careful positioning to be of any use. The higher the magnification, the narrower the field of view, the more trouble you’ll have finding and keeping track of the target. That’s why 3×-6x is as high as you’d ever want to go on a prepping rifle.

So for mid to long range defense in open rural areas, or greater precision in urban areas, get a low power magnified optic like the Trijicon 4x TA31FG ACOG, Trijicon TR24, Steiner P4xi, or Primary Arms SLX 3X.

Some of these (TA31 and SLX 3X) are prism sights with fixed magnification, and some (TR24 and P4xi) are variable optics with magnification that dials from 1x to 4x. Variable magnification optics (LPVOs) are very heavy, typically more than double the weight of the simpler fixed magnification sights, and their field of view at max is narrower than the equivalent magnification for a fixed prism sight.

With sufficient training, even fixed magnification optics (especially the TA31 and SLX 3X) can be used like a 1x red dot at close range by keeping both eyes open and allowing your brain to merge the glowing reticle seen by the shooting eye with the plain view seen by the other eye. Not everyone’s eye-brain system can pull that off, so a variable optic may be their next best choice. Alternatively, a small red dot like the RMR Type 2 can be mounted atop the TA31, which also sits it high enough that shooting with gas mask or night vision on becomes doable.

Once you have the sight, you need to zero it. Go to a gun range and set a target at your choice of zeroing distance. For a handgun, choose 15 yards. For red dots on rifles or pistol caliber carbines, 50 yards. For magnified optics, 100 yards (unless the instructions specifically say 50 yards).

Optics have windage (side to side) and elevation (up down) controls. These are dials that rotate with audible clicks. Each click adjusts the point of impact by a certain MOA amount depending on the model; check the instruction manual to be sure. MOA means “minute of angle” and corresponds to 1 inch at 100 yards, 1/2 inch at 50 yards, 1/4 inch at 25 yards, and so on. So if your shots are 2 inches low at 100 yards, a 1 MOA optic needs 2 clicks up. If it’s 2 inches to the right at 50 yards, and the optic is 1/4 MOA per click, you need 16 clicks left.

Once your optic is zeroed, you can reliably put rounds where you aim. Note that bullets fly in a parabolic (curved) trajectory. The gun actually points up a little, and the bullet arcs upward a couple inches for about 100-125 yards and then back down. The optic, meanwhile, aims straight ahead at the target, and the goal of zeroing is to make that line of sight intersect the arcing bullet trajectory at the target distance. At very close distances, because the barrel is below the optic, the bullet will hit 1-2 inches bellow your point of aim and you have to account for that. At far distances (past 300 yards) the bullet will likewise impact lower due to dropping. Ballistics software like Strelok lets you precisely calculate all this. But you don’t have to worry about ballistics if shooting a handgun under 75 yards or a rifle under 200 yards, since the bullet rise or drop along that trajectory is no more than 1-2 inches and is therefore accurate enough for center-of-mass hits.

Ammunition and Magazines

AR15 ammo: 55gr or 62gr FMJ for general use, bulk storage, and training. Heavier 77gr rounds perform better for home defense, hunting, and distance shooting but cost twice as much. To avoid jams and gun blowing up, only get new brass-cased ammo, not remanufactured or steel case. Note that switching bullet type will change your zero, so it’s best to stick with one type of ammo for a given optic unless you’re shooting close enough that the 1-2 MOA shift doesn’t matter.

AR15 magazines: Magpul Pmag M2 or M3 are the most reliable. Recommended quantity: 10 minimum per rifle, 100 for serious prepping. To carry 3-6 of them, you’ll need a chest rig or a plate carrier and tactical belt outfitted with Esstac or Blue Force Gear mag pouches. Magazines can be loaded and stored indefinitely in waterproof ammo cans, around 28 upright per Fat-50 can. Ammo cans are robust enough to survive being buried for several years. Hint.

Pistol ammo: 124 grain hollow-point ammunition for defense such as Federal HST or Speer Gold Dot. Regular 115gr FMJ or 124gr FMJ for training; for defense these will work and penetrate a little deeper but not expand like hollow-points. Cost and availability problems post-COVID has created a “beggars can’t be choosers” situation so get whatever’s reliable that you can afford. Reliability matters most.

Pistol magazines: When lives are on the line, only use original factory magazines. For just training at the range, the cheaper Magpul GL9 are fine for a Glock. Recommended quantity: 5 minimum, 25 for serious prepping. Standard pistol load out is 3 magazines: 1 in the gun and 2 on the belt. Therefore you don’t need as many pistol mags as rifle mags. For home defense, get a couple factory 33-round mags to supplement the 15-round mags that come with the Glock. The 33-rounds are a blessing considering how, statistically, in real life shootings only 1 in 10 rounds hits the intended target. With multiple moving threats, the advantage of higher capacity is clear.

To save ammo, you can get a pistol laser training cartridge and practice drawing and dry firing (pulling the trigger without firing a live round) in your home. For the AR15, they make similar and better systems like the Mantis Blackbeard.

On ammo quantity, only money and space are the limits. Absolute minimum is 200 rounds per pistol and 500 rounds per rifle, and that means little to no training with it just defense, hunting, and zeroing. More reasonable is 2k pistol and 5k rifle. Dedicated preppers have 5k per pistol and 10k per rifle, where 10k is the typical lifespan of a rifle barrel before accuracy degrades. Nowadays that’s a huge expense, but without ammo a gun is just an expensive hammer.

There’s a radical difference in ammo quantity needed for a home defense weapon that’s mostly kept in storage versus a war-fighting weapon used in small unit tactics. The latter, requiring “fire and maneuver” techniques, goes through ammo like water to suppress the enemy, at least 200-300 rounds per engagement, whereas a home defense shooting could be over with just a handful of rounds.

So aim to have at least the minimum, understanding that a time may come when you can’t buy ammo ever again.

Non-Ideal Firearms

Avoid shotguns unless you’re duck hunting or breaching doors. They’ll do the job for defense but aren’t optimal. They may be cheap but are just too long, heavy, lack range, only hold a few shells, have high recoil, are slow to reload, and the manual pump operated ones are difficult to run properly under stress. You also can’t do military “fire and maneuver” tactics with shotguns due to low capacity. That said, pump shotguns may be legal in places other firearms are not, so there are specific cases and places where they make sense.

Avoid revolvers. Again, they do the job but there are better options. They have low ammo capacity, are slow to reload, and are not necessarily more reliable than a Glock. They mainly make sense for untrained people who lack the hand strength to rack the slide on a semi-auto, or criminals who don’t want to leave shell casings at the scene.

Avoid the AK47. While good ones (KUSA KR-103 and Arsenal SLR-107) are on par with good AR15s (BCM, Daniel Defense) in terms of overall accuracy and reliability, they are clunky, crude, and ammo weighs more so you can’t carry as many rounds. They also have a negative stigma due to gang and Communist associations. The bigger problem is that nowadays imports are dwindling, prices are going up, and as of 8/21 Russian ammo is now banned from import which ups the cost of 7.62×39 ammo overall. Further, any American you would ever team up with will likely be using AR15s and it helps when everyone on a team uses interchangeable ammo, magazines, and parts. So for those living in America, a high quality AR15 is the superior choice for a self-defense rifle. The only time an AK would be preferable is if your team uses AKs exclusively, or you have access to tons of cheap 7.62×39 ammo, or you live in a brutally cold and icy environment like Alaska.

Hearing Protection

You’ll definitely need electronic hearing protection. If you want military grade earpro (waterproof and rugged) get the MSA Sordin Supreme Pro X or the 3M Comtac VI. Electronic hearing protection amplifies ambient sounds while reducing loudness of gunfire, giving you much better awareness of your surroundings and letting you communicate more effectively. Even just used casually, they give you super hearing.

Always wear additional ear plugs with these if around rifles/carbines, especially indoors, as electronic muffs alone aren’t enough to prevent hearing damage over time. (Also note that magnesium and iron deficiency increase risk of hearing loss from loud noises).

Suppressors or silencers are another option. They screw onto a pistol or rifle and reduce loudness, flash, and concussion by a certain amount. Unlike movie depictions, gunshots don’t become whisper quiet. They become ‘only’ as loud as firecrackers or the crack of a whip. In the military, this nevertheless allows easier communication within a team, and muzzle flash is greatly reduced if shooting with night vision. Indoors, for home defense a suppressor helps greatly with noise and concussion. Downsides are they’re heavy, expensive, require extra paper work, weeks if not months of waiting to get approved, and an extra $200 tax.

Safety and Training

Goes without saying that if you are at risk for theft, or have kids, or if kids ever so much as step a foot in your house, keep your firearms locked up in a safe place.

Educate yourself on safety procedures and take courses or watch videos to train correctly on firearm use until it becomes automatic, because only automatic motions can be relied upon in high stress situations. It takes a couple thousand correct repetitions to create automatic behaviors.

As far as courses go, pretty much any place within driving distance is fine for basic introductory skills. It’s when you go to intermediate and advanced skills that you have to be careful to avoid the deranged rambos with false credentials teaching you unrealistic and dangerous Hollywood techniques that don’t work in the real world. And if you can’t take courses, you’ll have to watch videos and choose wisely which ones to learn from. Either way, look for instructors with verified elite military backgrounds, especially for the AR15. Ones with only police backgrounds are fine for home and personal defense training involving pistols.

Body Armor

Body armor is a form of physical insurance, like wearing a helmet on a motorcycle. Downsides are cost, reduced mobility, and alarm or suspicion in public if too visible.

Soft armor (level IIIa) is lightweight and protects against pistol and shotgun but not rifle. Soft armor weighs around 5 lbs for a vest and offers greater coverage of the torso, is somewhat concealable, and can be worn all day every day aside from being a bit hot. Being shot while wearing soft armor feels like getting hit with a hammer, so it may still momentarily incapacitate you. If budget is not an issue, consider the Crye LVS.

Hard armor (level III+ or IV) is really heavy and thick but stops AR and AK rounds as well. Hard armor weighs 10-15 lbs for a system that covers your front and back torso. Stick with ceramic, polymer, composite plates around 5lbs and under that are rated to stop the M855 round. Avoid steel armor; too heavy to be worth the cost at any price. The only situation where steel makes sense is if you need to outfit multiple people on a low budget and they won’t be carrying ammo or moving around much.

Plates are worn via a plate carrier vest sized according to the plate size and shape. Plate width should approximate the distance between center of nipples, and should be worn high enough to reach the notch at the top of the sternum between the clavicles. Carriers with elastic in the cummerbund or side straps are preferred, as they allow for easier chest expansion when breathing. Some carriers have pockets in the cummerbund for side armor. Side plates are a good idea if you plan on being in vehicles more than on foot since your sides are exposed. Otherwise, side armor adds too much weight, so you have to be fit and strong to handle that if moving on foot a lot (like patrolling).

If you’re not fit, you won’t be able to maneuver with even just front and back plates; then the armor becomes a liability. By being slow, you increase chances of being shot elsewhere. The more bodyfat you have, the less you can carry armor. The optimal level for overall fitness, hormonal balance, and armor wearing is 10-15% bodyfat for men, 15-20% for women. So it’s not suitable for everyone. If you’re just standing or sitting or using it for short stints (think SWAT team or sentries) then the weight isn’t as big an issue, but any kind of running and hiking and infantry-style tactic will be made difficult with the extra weight. In terms of training, the most beneficial for this are deadlifts in the 10 rep range, lunges, pushups, and sprinting.

Night Vision

If you’re thinking about getting night vision, know that these take time to put on your head so they’re not a reactive home-defense tool. They’re mainly an offensive tool if you’re attacking at night, or defensive if doing sentry duty at night, or a navigational tool if hiking at night (and driving too but that’s very risky). Being able to walk in near darkness, without a flashlight, lets you move at night when it’s safer.

Minimum you’ll need is a PVS14 monocular with a Gen 3 or Gen 3+ tube. Avoid the cheaper digital night vision devices like the Aurora; it’s unusable for shooting while moving due to image lag. A proper PVS14 is lighter and has 40-60 hour battery life from a single AA battery. It is mature technology and works very well.

Keeping a monocular on your face requires a tactical bump helmet, like the kind from Ops Core, Team Wendy, or M-Tek; or else the lightweight and affordable Crye Night Cap with an aluminum shroud added. You’d also need a Norotos RHNO II mount or better to attach the PVS to the helmet’s shroud, and optionally a counterweight to reduce neck strain.

To shoot a pistol under night vision use a TLR-VIR-II white/infrared laser weapon light or quality pistol red dot sight like the Trijicon RMR HD or Aimpoint Acro P2.

To shoot a rifle with night vision use a Steiner Dbal-I2, or else Holosun LE117 with a Surefire M300V white/IR light. If price is no concern, the MAWL C1+ is better.

On a rifle, you can get by without a laser by passively aiming through a quality red dot that has night vision setting, but you’ll need a high optic mount (1.93”) to make it work and it’s awkward overall. On a pistol, a red dot works quite well under night vision but a laser is still quicker to aim.

Tactical night vision is a tricky subject that requires research to make the wisest decisions, and then you’ll need training and at least 20-40 hours doing things in the dark to get comfortable with it. Night vision is expensive enough ($3000+) that many preppers simply forego it and make do with a good white weapon light.

Resources

Survival Theory I & Survival Theory II by Jonathan Hollerman. Soberingly objective books on prepping for long term societal collapse.

The Modern Survival Manual: Surviving the Economic Collapse by Ferfall on drawn out economic collapses. Goes well with Selco’s book The Dark Secrets of SHTF Survival.

The Survival Medicine Handbook by Joseph and Amy Alton. An accessible wilderness medicine guidebook.

The Prepper’s Medical Handbook by William Forgey. A more serious text discussing the medical skills and supplies needed to serve as a general practitioner when no hospital is available.

The SAS Survival Handbook by John Wiseman. Teaches the bare basics of survival in the wilderness with simple bushcraft skills.

Contact! A Tactical Manual for Post Collapse Survival by Max Velocity. Demystifies Hollywood-programmed expectations of how force and violence is conducted in the real world.

Studying and applying this stuff can take its mental and spiritual toll, so be careful and weigh the risk of that versus the risk of not being prepared.

Guidelines

Here are some things to keep in mind:

1) You can only prepare for a limited set of scenarios. A point comes in your attempt to prepare for everything, where you’ve just thrown away your life, your destiny, your mission if you have one, all for the sake of surviving. Then you would be surviving for the sake of existing, not for the sake of living. Life would be meaningless and you just defeated your very purpose for coming here. Therefore, no amount of preparation warrants throwing your life away and heading into the hills, shutting yourself off from the world until doomsday comes. All preparations should be done in parallel with your regular life and not infringe upon it. If your main life is Plan A (nothing happens) then keep that open while you simultaneously have Plan B (S.H.T.F. = shit hits the fan, meaning a condition of survival amidst social chaos and civil breakdown).

2) Do not become obsessed, preoccupied, or emotionally lost in this. If you get some survival item, know how to use it and put it away until time for maintenance, training, and use. Don’t dress up in ninja gear like you have some kind of survivalism fetish, don’t be turning over heroic post-apocalyptic fantasies in your mind hours upon hours a day, and don’t keep gloating over your advantage over the other poor suckers who are asleep and unprepared. Reason being that holding onto an extreme survivalism mentality, beyond what’s needed to actually do it and be proficient at it, is highly detrimental to your spiritual balance. Have the knowledge and supplies, but be very cautious of aligning your heart and thought-train completely and exclusively with the mere idea of physical survivalism. Making it your life goal will kill your soul, and you need your soul and a spiritual connection to gain the synchronistic and intuitive protection needed to keep you safe in all scenarios, not just the ones you can physically prepare for.

3) To an extent, spiritual balance, good intuition (honed through past trial and error), and sharp awareness (observe and think several steps ahead) will get you farther than any physical survival dwelling or supplies. Why? Because then you can respond flexibly to whatever comes, as it comes. By spiritual balance I mean keeping a leash on your ego, your jealousies, contempt and hatred, desperate materialism, greed, and other base impulses… and instead, striving for equanimity, gratitude to the Creator, devotion to truth and beauty and fairness, and consideration for others. Then you acquire divine blessing that increases the luck factor in your life. In the midst of calamity you can get an intuitive or synchronistic helping hand.

Of course, spiritual versus physical preparation are not mutually exclusive; just avoid physical obsession that infringes on spiritual balance; that’s the most important thing I can say. Same goes for looking toward the future and getting apprehensive. Don’t lose hope or optimism, as you need these to carve out a pathway to heaven through times of hell.

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